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Last year I brought home some interesting Trilliums from work (Along with a Jack-in-the-Pulpit, Arisaema sp., though I suspect a squirrel got it as I've seen no signs of life from that spot and there's been a lot of digging in that area) after they went dormant and were starting to look a little like empty pots of soil (not usually fast sellers at that point!).
They seem to have made it through the winter and a spring of being uncovered by squirrels and reburied by me as I found holes all over the place. I now have three different varieties in my shade garden.
This is my oldest, I believe it may be Trillium erectum, though I've lost the tag long ago. This picture is from last spring.
Trillium sessile 'Red Toad' - Love those leaves! I have
Trillium recurvatum 'Purple Prairie' - Nice leaf but more green than 'Red Toad.' I have two of these, by the looks of things. I'll replace this picture once it's open more, and maybe the second one will be bigger? It's still curled up. (There's also a vigorous Turtle Head (Chelone obliqua) that's asking to be trimmed back a little right beside it.)
My experience from the first I planted (remaining of three planted) is that if they are not dug up in their first year (as the other two were) they'll be left alone from then onwards. They're also very slow to start spreading.
And Always buy your Trilliums from reputable growers who have not dug up wild Trilliums from forests. They are slow to spread and damage from harvesting may take several years for the patch to fully recover (when left alone) and also never pick a Trillium flower or cut back the foliage prematurely.